BEAM Wisdoms — Virtual Machine Knowledge Base Help

Memory Performance ELI5

Data Locality

In recent decades performance of computer memory did not grow as fast as performance of CPUs has improved. To offset impact of memory low performance several levels of CPU caches are used which store recently accessed data closer to the CPU. When you access any byte in memory, larger blocks of data are loaded to cache or flushed at once (these are called cache rows).

The general rule of gaining the best performance is to store relevant data close together. From Erlang point of view it means also creating all relevant data together which will place them together in process heap.

If the data is large, it should be grouped to allow sequential processing. And the cost of memory access can be so high that some values are cheaper to calculate instead of loading them from some cold (un-cached and rarely read) memory location.

Hot (often accessed) memory is a welcome place to store your variables and working data, for C and C++ programs this is program stack and for C++ this would be fields of your current class object, because it was always accessed recently. It is harder to say which memory is hot for Erlang, as we don't control much of its behaviour, but there are some tricks that affect data placement on heap and how it will perform after.

Cache Miss

A "cache miss" is a special situation which occurs when CPU accesses some data and the data wasn't in cache. A cache row (64 bytes) of data are requested from main RAM. CPU is forced to wait for the data. If possible the CPU will try and do some other work by reordering machine instructions, but this does not always happen and just assume that it is waiting for the data.

Typical cost of a cache miss is at least ~100 CPU cycles. This is a lot of time, many simpler values can be calculated without accessing memory and save significant time with not reading the main RAM.

Even worse if your program runs on a large production server with hundreds GB of memory, then most likely it uses non-uniform memory architecture (NUMA) and the memory is divided between CPU cores. The cost of a cache miss on such machines is even higher, especially if accessing part of RAM "owned" by another CPU core. Erlang and BEAM VM is aware about this and does its best to preserve the core locality of used memory.

So when you are optimizing your awesome algorithm which now is perfect and doesn't run any better no matter the effort, have a look at how it works with memory. The reward for using memory efficiently is your code running much faster!

Data Types

Immediate Values

These values are smallest, they always fit into a CPU register and there is not much you can do to make them work any faster. They are atoms, small integers, local pids etc.


Lists in BEAM are represented as single-linked lists of value pairs (cells). If a list is created in a complex algorithm slowly, its cells might be sparsely distributed in memory interleaved with other data created at the same time. This may lead to inefficient CPU cache usage. A way to offset this is to create your large working lists in tight loops while not creating other unnecessary data. This will place list cells tightly together with their values. When it is not possible, you can always invoke a major garbage collection and have everything sorted for you (at a cost).


As tuples are stored as arrays, they are cache friendly. If a tuple contains other data structures such as lists or tuples, the data will be stored somewhere else on heap and the tuple will only contain pointers to it. Even better if a major garbage collection was performed recently which sorts your data in memory and groups it together.


Even if a floating point value fits into a CPU register and has same size as an immediate value (small integer or atom etc), actually they are stored on-heap with a header word marking their presence, and another word is used as the pointer to the boxed value. This makes floats consume double the memory and each access to them will dereference a pointer to a possibly cold memory location where no other floats are stored.

Best you can do here is to create your arrays or lists of floating point values in tight loop together, which will maximize how many floats are cached when a single cache row of 64 bytes is loaded. Or run a major GC to group them automatically.

ETS Tables

There is not much you can do to affect ETS table memory behaviour, so here you are at the mercy of BEAM VM developers.

Last modified: 10 June 2024